Thursday, January 6, 2011

In Siddha system of medicine all the systemic diseases have been classified under three categories.
I. Based on the vitiation of three humours.
II. Based the predominant symptoms and
III. Based on the line of treatment.
In modern medicine the Nosology which deals with the classification of diseases has grown boundless. No one can easily remember the names. But in Siddha system of medicine all the diseases the human being assailed with can be classified into 147 classifications, though the total numbers of diseases are mentioned as 4448. (Uthamarayan, 1953)
”Veluppu noi” is one among the diseases classified based on the symptoms which literally means the Pallor, that can be exactly correlated with Modern classification of Anaemia. A detailed description of signs and the symptoms, etiological factors and their management have been found to be described in detail (Yugimuni, Annonymous.1965). This clinical entity is classified in to six, four based on vitiation of humours, one under toxic anemia and the last one Anemia due to the consumption of Ashes and the soil.
The word Paandu literally means pallor. In this clinical condition the conjunctiva, tongue, nail bud turn into pallor and it is has been named as PAANDU NOI.
Syn: Velluppu noi, vemmai noi.
The etiological clusters, like Nutritional deficiency, hemorrhages, worm infestation and the other secondary causes like Tuberculosis, chronic sprue and the disease like piles, metarrhagia and menorrhagia are also found to be described.

· Excessive intake of Salt, sour foods, mud, ashes, toxic drugs.
· Haemorrhagic conditions like Mennorrhagia (Perumpaadu), Hypertension (Pithathikkam), Haemorroids (Moolam), Haematemesis (Kuruthivaandi).
· Worm Infestations.
· Hepatic disorders. (Murugaesa mudaliyar, 2008)
Premonitory symptoms
1. At first instance due to dietary changes, vitiated pitha affects the colour and consistency of the blood, which will prevent the proper supply of the nutrients to the body and leads the body in to pale in colour.
2. Secondly, while walking small distance leads to dyspnoea and weakness of the lower limbs.
3. Anorexia, nausea, giddiness, blackouts, frequent fainting, palpitation and emaciation.
General symptoms
1. Weakness of the body
2. Headache
3. Palpitation
4. Blackouts
5. Giddiness
6. Fainting
7. Dyspnoea
8. Anorexia
9. Vomiting
10. Pallor and Shrinkage of the skin
11. Emaciation and shining of the body
12. Clubbing
13. Fissures, redness and softening of the tongue
14. Sore throat

It is classified as 6 types
A. Based on humoral pathology - 4 types
1. Vali paandu – Haemolytic anaemia
2. Azhal paandu – Megaloblastic anaemia
3. Iyya paandu – Pernicious anaemia
4. Mukkutra paandu – Sickle celled anaemia

B. Based on Toxaemia - 1 type
1. Nanju paandu – Thalassemia
Apart from these 5 types it is found to be described the other classification MANUN PAANDU which is caused by consumption of ashes, mud and so on. This can be correlated with iron deficiency anaemia. (Kuppusamy mudaliyar, 2007)
Vali paandu:
The main symptoms are
· Anorexia
· Stomach ache
· Thirst
· Blackish discolouration of blood vessels
· Redness of eye
· Constipation
· Pallor
· Anasarca
Azhal paandu:
The main symptoms are
· Yellowish discolouration of body
· Pallor of tongue, hand and foot
· Eye vision diminished
· Thirst
· Dyspnoea
· Giddiness
Iya paandu :
The main symptoms are
· Whitish colouration of body
· Pylo erection
· Cough with expectoration
· Syncope
· Low back ache
Mukkutra paandu:
The main symptoms are
· Dyspnoea
· Bronchial asthma
· Frequent micturition
· Sneezing
· Anasarca
Nanju paandu:
It is defined due to consumption of toxic materials. The following symptoms are manifested this may be easily correlated with toxic anaemia. Haemolytic anaemia, Thalasemia can be grouped under this classification.
· Excessive thirst
· Vomiting
· Hic cough
· Cough
· Anasarca

Mannun paandu:
Consumption of Mud, ashes induces worm infestations which in turn leads anaemia and pallor. The main symptoms are
· Flatulence
· Indigestion
· Vomiting
· Diarrhoea
The treatment of Anaemia involves three phases.

First phase:
It is a preparatory phase. In this phase purgation is generally given to normalise the vitiated Vayu humour. It also helps to eliminate worms and other accumulated toxins of the body. Generally, the following medicines are prescribed.
Therapy - 1
1. Vitis vinifera - Thiraatchai
2. Phoenix dactylifera - Pereichu
3. Rosa borboniana - Rosa poo
4. Operculina turpethum - Sivathai
Equal quantity of all the ingredients are boiled in water and reduced to 1/8 and administered at bedtime to cleansing the GIT and detoxify the body.
Therapy - 2
1. Sesbania grandiflora - Agathi
10 -15 gms of leaves are boiled with 250 ml of water and reduced to 1/8th that is 30 ml and administered with palm jiggery before bedtime. This will be useful in cleaning the GIT tract and also to expel the worms

Therapy - 3
1. Tinospora cordifolia - Seenthil
2. Feronia limonia - Narivila
3. Mollugo cerviana - Parpadagam
4. Cassia acutifolia - Perungalli
5. Operculina turpethum - Sivathai
Equal quantity of the above ingredients are taken and decoction is prepared using sufficient quantity of Epsum salt. This will be useful in cleaning the GI tract and hepato-biliary system by inducing purgation.

Second phase:
This phase includes the medicines the dosage, vehicles, adjuvants, durations and diet prescription. Siddhar’s intuitions are so high that, the prescription given by them containing herbs, herbo minerals, metallic compounds which are rich in micro and macro nutrients such as calcium, Vit C, zinc and iron.
The modern way of treating anaemia goes in par with their intuitions. Siddhar’s have used iron, ferrous sulphate, magnetite, iron rust predominantly. They have been selected, purified and processed to get the medicine which later evolved as traditional standard operating procedures. The form of iron present in the end product is in the ferrous state which enhances in pharmacokinetics and logistics.
The following drugs are generally prescribed in treatment of the Anaemia with suitable vehicle (Anupana) and Adjuvants( Tunai marunthu)
Name of the medicine
Aya sambeera karpam
Aya pirungarasa karpam

Name of the medicine
Aya parpam
Kantha parpam
Velli parpam
Ayanaga parapm

Name of the medicine
Aya chenduram
Kantha chenduram
Ekku chenduram
Mandoora chenduram
Arumuga chenduram
Ayaveera chenduram
Velli chenduram
Thanga chenduram
Annabethi chenduarm
Ayakantha chenduram

Third phase:
This is the phase followed immediately after the treatment in which prescription is made to change the life style i.e. Iyama, Niyama daily course, seasonal contacts and diet to prevent the recurrence.


Annonymous. (2005). Yugi vaithya chinthamani - 800, 2nd edition.pp 167-169, Chennai: Dept of Indian Medicine and Homeopathy,Govt of Tamilnadu.
Kuppusamy mudaliyar, K. (2007). Siddha Maruthuvam 7th edition. pp 345-352,Chennai: Dept of Indian systems of Medicine and Homeopathy, Govt of Tamilnadu.
Murugaesa mudaliyar, C. (2008). Siddha materia medica Part I 2nd edition pp 229-231. Chennai: Dept of Indian Systems of Medicine and Homeopathy, Govt of Tamilnadu.
Thiagarajan, R. (1981). Siddha Materia medica part II 3rd Edition. pp 394-397 Chennai: Dept of Indian systems of Medicine and Homeopathy, Govt of Tamilnadu.
Uthamarayan, C. (1953). Siddha Maruthuvanga Churukkam.pp 285. Chennai: Govt Press, Tamilnadu.


Strength essence said...

A convenient chart is given below to locate the reasons of dyapnoea.

Strength essence said...

A convenient chart is given below to locate the reasons of dyapnoea.